Settlements & Enclosures

Archaeological sites which tend to be overlooked by some people are, surprisingly, the places in which our ancestors lived; and then when we do come across such remains they are looked upon as merely ‘domestic’ sites, i.e., that they serve much the same function as our modern houses do. This assumption is both simplistic and naive, as neolithic to Iron Age cultures had very different notions and ingredients about their living quarters. In many settlement remains, the dead were kept with the living; whilst some living quarters were also the abodes of ‘spirit.’ Although we cannot apply this notion across the board, aspects such as these have to be remembered when we try assessing the nature and function of something we see, somewhat profanely, as mere ‘settlements.’  Also remember that people in neolithic through to Iron Age periods were nomadic. There is a notion prevalent in some archaeological circles that when agriculture first arrived in the UK in neolithic times, that it was adopted across the country by all and sundry straight away – which is rather myopic. Much like the North American tribal cultures, small tribal groups here would move from their Spring and Summer settlements to others in the colder seasons, then back again (following the same traditional routes) when Nature’s signs indicated (migration of birds, etc). It’s very unlikely there was a 365-day period where people stayed in the same area. Such a transition took many centuries to become fixed (modern Romany gypsies are the last nomadic cultures of Europe, showing that the notion of ‘settlement’ for everyone is not necessarily the natural order). So prehistoric settlements are important, not merely as sites where communities stayed for periods of time, but also enacted social rituals that were an endemic part of domestic life.

  1. Addlebrough, Bainbridge, North Yorkshire
  2. Allt Leathan, Fortingall, Perthshire
  3. Annanshaw Brae, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  4. Avon Reservoir, Dean Moor, South Brent, Devon
  5. Backstone Beck, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  6. Backstone West, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  7. Bad Chailleach, Little Gruinard, Ross & Cromarty
  8. Baile Mhargaite 1, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  9. Baile Mhargaite 2, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  10. Baile Mhargaite 3, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  11. Baile Mhargaite 4, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  12. Baile Mhargaite 5, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  13. Barrasford Common, Barrasford, Northumberland
  14. Baston Manor, Hayes, Kent
  15. Bastow Wood, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  16. Bengengie North, Alva, Clackmannanshire
  17. Bent Gate, Blubberhouse Moor, North Yorkshire
  18. Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  19. Black Hill, Crawfordjohn, Lanarkshire
  20. Black Hill Enclosure, Middleton Moor, North Yorkshire
  21. Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  22. Blue Scar, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  23. Bodsbury Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  24. Bricoe Rigg, Rigton, North Yorkshire
  25. Broadbank Earth Circle, Thursden, Burnley, Lancashire
  26. Brown Law, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  27. Burton Moor, West Burton, North Yorkshire
  28. Campside Wood, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  29. Cannings Cross Farm, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  30. Carle Gill, Leadhills, Lanarkshire
  31. The Carrs, Ovenden, Halifax, West Yorkshire
  32. Castercliff, Nelson, Lancashire
  33. Castle Hill, Kirklees, West Yorkshire
  34. Castle Hill, Upper Cumberworth, West Yorkshire
  35. Castle Stead, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  36. Castlestead Ring, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  37. Catstones Ring, Harden, West Yorkshire
  38. Chapel House Field, Kilnsey, Consistone, North Yorkshire
  39. Chapel House Wood, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  40. Clowder (1), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  41. Clowder (2), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  42. Clowder (3), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  43. Clowder (4), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  44. Coldstone Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  45. Conichen East, Glen Almond, Perthshire
  46. Corbury Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  47. Corrycharmaig, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  48. Counter Hill, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  49. Cow Close, Skirethorns, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  50. Cow Gill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  51. Cratcliff East, Harthill, Derbyshire
  52. Cratcliff Rocks, Birchover, Derbyshire
  53. Crawshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  54. Crookedstane, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  55. Crosley Wood, Bingley, West Yorkshire
  56. Crow Well, Denton Moor, North Yorkshire
  57. Dewbottoms, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  58. Dew Bottoms (1), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  59. Dew Bottoms (2), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  60. Dew Bottoms (3), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  61. Dew Bottoms (4), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  62. Dew Bottoms (5), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  63. Dew Bottoms (6), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  64. Dew Bottoms Top, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  65. Doddin, Watermeetings, Lanarkshire
  66. Douky Bottom Ring, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  67. Douky Bottom Settlement, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  68. Drake Law, Abington, Lanarkshire
  69. Dumpit Hill Enclosure, Hebden, North Yorkshire
  70. Duncroisk, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  71. Dunruchan, Muthill, Perthshire
  72. Dyke Hills, Dorchester, Oxfordshire
  73. Easington Fell Ring, Newton, Lancashire
  74. Ellershie Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  75. Elvanfoot Settlement, Lanarkshire
  76. Elvanfoot West Settlement, Lanarkshire
  77. Fair Oak Circle, Whitewell, Chipping, Lancashire
  78. Foster Clough Delph, Midgley Moor, West Yorkshire
  79. Garchel Burn, Glendevon, Perthshire
  80. Gastonend Wood, Abington, Lanarkshire
  81. Gill Head, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  82. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  83. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  84. Glen Cochill 2, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  85. Glenochar, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  86. Grass Woods, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  87. Great Skirtful Ring, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  88. Green Crag East, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  89. Green Crag Slack, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  90. Green Plain, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  91. Hammond Close, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  92. Hawksworth Moor Camp, Hawksworth, West Yorkshire
  93. Helwith Bridge, Stainforth, North Yorkshire
  94. Hickford Hill, Belchamp St Paul, Essex
  95. High Close Pasture, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  96. High Hill, Sigsworth Moor, Fountains Earth, North Yorkshire
  97. High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  98. Hollin Tree Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  99. Horn Bank, Rigton, North Yorkshire
  100. Horncliffe Circle, Hawksworth Moor, West Yorkshire
  101. Horse Close Hill, Skipton, North Yorkshire
  102. Hurl Burn, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  103. Innischoarach, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  104. Ivy Chimneys, Witham, Essex
  105. Kealcup Hill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  106. Kimpergill Hill, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  107. Lael Forest, Braemore, Ross & Cromarty
  108. Langcliffe, Kettlewell, North Yorkshire
  109. Lanshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  110. Lea Green, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  111. Lantern Holes, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  112. Lodge Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  113. Marchup, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  114. Mellon Udrigle, Ross & Cromarty
  115. Middle House Pasture, Waterhouses, Malham, North Yorkshire
  116. Moor Lane, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  117. Mossy Dod, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  118. Newton Bridge, Fowlis Wester, Perthshire
  119. Normangill Rig, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  120. North Ring, Mucking, Stanford-le-Hope, Essex
  121. North Shortcleuch, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  122. Oldfield Hill, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  123. Outgang Hill, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  124. Overlee, Clarkston, Renfrewshire
  125. Panorama Woods, Ilkley, West Yorkshire
  126. Power Station Road, Sheerness, Isle of Sheppey, Kent
  127. Prior Rakes, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  128. Proctor High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  129. Quarry Hill, Leeds, West Yorkshire
  130. Raven’s Peak, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  131. Reed Gill, Camps Water, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  132. Rivock, Riddlesden, Keighley, West Yorkshire
  133. Rough Haw, Flasby, North Yorkshire
  134. Round Dikes, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  135. Royd Edge, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  136. Rushy Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  137. Rybury Hill, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  138. Rams Hill, Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire
  139. Sand, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  140. Rushy Beck West, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  141. Scot Gate Pasture, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  142. Shay Gate, Wilsden, West Yorkshire
  143. Shealwalls, Alyth, Perthshire (NEW FIND)
  144. Sheep Scar, Giggleswick, North Yorkshire
  145. Sheriff Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  146. Shooting House Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  147. Shorkley Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  148. Skelshaw Ring, Easington, Lancashire
  149. Slade, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  150. Snowden Carr Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  151. Snowden Moor Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  152. South Kirkby, South Yorkshire
  153. Springfield Lyons, Chelmsford, Essex
  154. Stanbury Hill, Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  155. Stanwick Fortifications, Stanwick-St-John, North Yorkshire
  156. Stead Crag, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  157. Steyforth Hill, Stainburn, North Yorkshire
  158. Stoop Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  159. Stridebut Edge, Malham, North Yorkshire
  160. Studfold Ring, Amplethorpe, North Yorkshire
  161. Sun Bank, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  162. Swinston Hill, Dinnington, South Yorkshire
  163. Talmine (west), Melness, Tongue, Sutherland
  164. Tattersal Pasture, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  165. Tooter Hill, Bacup, Lancashire
  166. Torlery Edge, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  167. Torr Mor, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  168. Townhead, Rothesay, Isle of Bute, Argyll
  169. Tullich, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  170. Werneth Low, Hyde, Lancashire
  171. Wharncliffe Moor, Stocksbridge, South Yorkshire
  172. Whelphill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  173. Woofa Bank, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  174. Yarmer Head, Nidd, North Yorkshire
  175. Yarnbury, Grassington, North Yorkshire

© Paul Bennett, The Northern Antiquarian