Settlements & Enclosures

Archaeological sites which tend to be overlooked by some people are, surprisingly, the places in which our ancestors lived; and then when we do come across such remains they are looked upon as merely ‘domestic’ sites, i.e., that they serve much the same function as our modern houses do. This assumption is both simplistic and naive, as neolithic to Iron Age cultures had very different notions and ingredients about their living quarters. In many settlement remains, the dead were kept with the living; whilst some living quarters were also the abodes of ‘spirit.’ Although we cannot apply this notion across the board, aspects such as these have to be remembered when we try assessing the nature and function of something we see, somewhat profanely, as mere ‘settlements.’  Also remember that people in neolithic through to Iron Age periods were nomadic. There is a notion prevalent in some archaeological circles that when agriculture first arrived in the UK in neolithic times, that it was adopted across the country by all and sundry straight away – which is rather myopic. Much like the North American tribal cultures, small tribal groups here would move from their Spring and Summer settlements to others in the colder seasons, then back again (following the same traditional routes) when Nature’s signs indicated (migration of birds, etc). It’s very unlikely there was a 365-day period where people stayed in the same area. Such a transition took many centuries to become fixed (modern Romany gypsies are the last nomadic cultures of Europe, showing that the notion of ‘settlement’ for everyone is not necessarily the natural order). So prehistoric settlements are important, not merely as sites where communities stayed for periods of time, but also enacted social rituals that were an endemic part of domestic life.

  1. Addlebrough, Bainbridge, North Yorkshire
  2. Allt Leathan, Fortingall, Perthshire
  3. Annanshaw Brae, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  4. Avon Reservoir, Dean Moor, South Brent, Devon
  5. Backstone Beck, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  6. Backstone West, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  7. Bad Chailleach, Little Gruinard, Ross & Cromarty
  8. Baile Mhargaite 1, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  9. Baile Mhargaite 2, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  10. Baile Mhargaite 3, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  11. Baile Mhargaite 4, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  12. Baile Mhargaite 5, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  13. Barrasford Common, Barrasford, Northumberland
  14. Baston Manor, Hayes, Kent
  15. Bastow Wood, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  16. Bengengie North, Alva, Clackmannanshire
  17. Bent Gate, Blubberhouse Moor, North Yorkshire
  18. Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  19. Black Hill, Crawfordjohn, Lanarkshire
  20. Black Hill Enclosure, Middleton Moor, North Yorkshire
  21. Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  22. Blue Scar, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  23. Bodsbury Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  24. Bricoe Rigg, Rigton, North Yorkshire
  25. Broadbank Earth Circle, Thursden, Burnley, Lancashire
  26. Brown Law, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  27. Burton Moor, West Burton, North Yorkshire
  28. Campside Wood, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  29. Cannings Cross Farm, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  30. Carle Gill, Leadhills, Lanarkshire
  31. The Carrs, Ovenden, Halifax, West Yorkshire
  32. Castercliff, Nelson, Lancashire
  33. Castle Hill, Kirklees, West Yorkshire
  34. Castle Hill, Upper Cumberworth, West Yorkshire
  35. Castle Stead, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  36. Castlestead Ring, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  37. Catstones Ring, Harden, West Yorkshire
  38. Chapel House Field, Kilnsey, Consistone, North Yorkshire
  39. Chapel House Wood, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  40. Clowder (1), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  41. Clowder (2), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  42. Clowder (3), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  43. Clowder (4), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  44. Coldstone Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  45. Conichen East, Glen Almond, Perthshire
  46. Corbury Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  47. Corrycharmaig, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  48. Counter Hill, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  49. Cow Close, Skirethorns, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  50. Cow Gill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  51. Cratcliff East, Harthill, Derbyshire
  52. Cratcliff Rocks, Birchover, Derbyshire
  53. Crawshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  54. Crookedstane, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  55. Crosley Wood, Bingley, West Yorkshire
  56. Crow Well, Denton Moor, North Yorkshire
  57. Dewbottoms, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  58. Dew Bottoms (1), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  59. Dew Bottoms (2), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  60. Dew Bottoms (3), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  61. Dew Bottoms (4), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  62. Dew Bottoms (5), Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  63. Doddin, Watermeetings, Lanarkshire
  64. Douky Bottom Ring, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  65. Douky Bottom Settlement, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  66. Drake Law, Abington, Lanarkshire
  67. Dumpit Hill Enclosure, Hebden, North Yorkshire
  68. Duncroisk, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  69. Dunruchan, Muthill, Perthshire
  70. Dyke Hills, Dorchester, Oxfordshire
  71. Easington Fell Ring, Newton, Lancashire
  72. Ellershie Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  73. Elvanfoot Settlement, Lanarkshire
  74. Elvanfoot West Settlement, Lanarkshire
  75. Fair Oak Circle, Whitewell, Chipping, Lancashire
  76. Foster Clough Delph, Midgley Moor, West Yorkshire
  77. Garchel Burn, Glendevon, Perthshire
  78. Gastonend Wood, Abington, Lanarkshire
  79. Gill Head, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  80. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  81. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  82. Glen Cochill 2, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  83. Glenochar, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  84. Grass Woods, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  85. Great Skirtful Ring, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  86. Green Crag East, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  87. Green Crag Slack, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  88. Green Plain, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  89. Hammond Close, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  90. Hawksworth Moor Camp, Hawksworth, West Yorkshire
  91. Helwith Bridge, Stainforth, North Yorkshire
  92. Hickford Hill, Belchamp St Paul, Essex
  93. High Close Pasture, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  94. High Hill, Sigsworth Moor, Fountains Earth, North Yorkshire
  95. High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  96. Hollin Tree Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  97. Horn Bank, Rigton, North Yorkshire
  98. Horncliffe Circle, Hawksworth Moor, West Yorkshire
  99. Horse Close Hill, Skipton, North Yorkshire
  100. Hurl Burn, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  101. Innischoarach, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  102. Ivy Chimneys, Witham, Essex
  103. Kealcup Hill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  104. Kimpergill Hill, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  105. Lael Forest, Braemore, Ross & Cromarty
  106. Langcliffe, Kettlewell, North Yorkshire
  107. Lanshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  108. Lea Green, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  109. Lantern Holes, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  110. Lodge Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  111. Marchup, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  112. Mellon Udrigle, Ross & Cromarty
  113. Middle House Pasture, Waterhouses, Malham, North Yorkshire
  114. Moor Lane, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  115. Mossy Dod, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  116. Newton Bridge, Fowlis Wester, Perthshire
  117. Normangill Rig, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  118. North Ring, Mucking, Stanford-le-Hope, Essex
  119. North Shortcleuch, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  120. Oldfield Hill, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  121. Outgang Hill, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  122. Overlee, Clarkston, Renfrewshire
  123. Panorama Woods, Ilkley, West Yorkshire
  124. Power Station Road, Sheerness, Isle of Sheppey, Kent
  125. Prior Rakes, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  126. Proctor High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  127. Quarry Hill, Leeds, West Yorkshire
  128. Raven’s Peak, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  129. Reed Gill, Camps Water, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  130. Rivock, Riddlesden, Keighley, West Yorkshire
  131. Rough Haw, Flasby, North Yorkshire
  132. Round Dikes, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  133. Royd Edge, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  134. Rushy Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  135. Rybury Hill, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  136. Rams Hill, Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire
  137. Sand, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  138. Rushy Beck West, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  139. Scot Gate Pasture, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  140. Shay Gate, Wilsden, West Yorkshire
  141. Shealwalls, Alyth, Perthshire (NEW FIND)
  142. Sheep Scar, Giggleswick, North Yorkshire
  143. Sheriff Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  144. Shooting House Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  145. Shorkley Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  146. Skelshaw Ring, Easington, Lancashire
  147. Slade, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  148. Snowden Carr Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  149. Snowden Moor Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  150. South Kirkby, South Yorkshire
  151. Springfield Lyons, Chelmsford, Essex
  152. Stanbury Hill, Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  153. Stanwick Fortifications, Stanwick-St-John, North Yorkshire
  154. Stead Crag, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  155. Steyforth Hill, Stainburn, North Yorkshire
  156. Stoop Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  157. Stridebut Edge, Malham, North Yorkshire
  158. Studfold Ring, Amplethorpe, North Yorkshire
  159. Sun Bank, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  160. Swinston Hill, Dinnington, South Yorkshire
  161. Talmine (west), Melness, Tongue, Sutherland
  162. Tattersal Pasture, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  163. Tooter Hill, Bacup, Lancashire
  164. Torlery Edge, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  165. Torr Mor, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  166. Townhead, Rothesay, Isle of Bute, Argyll
  167. Tullich, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  168. Werneth Low, Hyde, Lancashire
  169. Wharncliffe Moor, Stocksbridge, South Yorkshire
  170. Whelphill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  171. Woofa Bank, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  172. Yarmer Head, Nidd, North Yorkshire
  173. Yarnbury, Grassington, North Yorkshire

© Paul Bennett, The Northern Antiquarian