Settlements & Enclosures

Archaeological sites which tend to be overlooked by some people are, surprisingly, the places in which our ancestors lived; and then when we do come across such remains they are looked upon as merely ‘domestic’ sites, i.e., that they serve much the same function as our modern houses do. This assumption is both simplistic and naive, as neolithic to Iron Age cultures had very different notions and ingredients about their living quarters. In many settlement remains, the dead were kept with the living; whilst some living quarters were also the abodes of ‘spirit.’ Although we cannot apply this notion across the board, aspects such as these have to be remembered when we try assessing the nature and function of something we see, somewhat profanely, as mere ‘settlements.’  Also remember that people in neolithic through to Iron Age periods were nomadic. There is a notion prevalent in some archaeological circles that when agriculture first arrived in the UK in neolithic times, that it was adopted across the country by all and sundry straight away – which is rather myopic. Much like the North American tribal cultures, small tribal groups here would move from their Spring and Summer settlements to others in the colder seasons, then back again (following the same traditional routes) when Nature’s signs indicated (migration of birds, etc). It’s very unlikely there was a 365-day period where people stayed in the same area. Such a transition took many centuries to become fixed (modern Romany gypsies are the last nomadic cultures of Europe, showing that the notion of ‘settlement’ for everyone is not necessarily the natural order). So prehistoric settlements are important, not merely as sites where communities stayed for periods of time, but also enacted social rituals that were an endemic part of domestic life.

  1. Addlebrough, Bainbridge, North Yorkshire
  2. Allt Leathan, Fortingall, Perthshire
  3. Annanshaw Brae, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  4. Avon Reservoir, Dean Moor, South Brent, Devon
  5. Backstone Beck, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  6. Backstone West, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  7. Bad Chailleach, Little Gruinard, Ross & Cromarty
  8. Baile Mhargaite 1, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  9. Baile Mhargaite 2, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  10. Baile Mhargaite 3, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  11. Baile Mhargaite 4, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  12. Baile Mhargaite 5, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  13. Barrasford Common, Barrasford, Northumberland
  14. Baston Manor, Hayes, Kent
  15. Bastow Wood, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  16. Bengengie North, Alva, Clackmannanshire
  17. Bent Gate, Blubberhouse Moor, North Yorkshire
  18. Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  19. Black Hill, Crawfordjohn, Lanarkshire
  20. Black Hill Enclosure, Middleton Moor, North Yorkshire
  21. Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  22. Blue Scar, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  23. Bodsbury Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  24. Broadbank Earth Circle, Thursden, Burnley, Lancashire
  25. Brown Law, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  26. Burton Moor, West Burton, North Yorkshire
  27. Campside Wood, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  28. Cannings Cross Farm, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  29. Carle Gill, Leadhills, Lanarkshire
  30. The Carrs, Ovenden, Halifax, West Yorkshire
  31. Castercliff, Nelson, Lancashire
  32. Castle Hill, Kirklees, West Yorkshire
  33. Castle Hill, Upper Cumberworth, West Yorkshire
  34. Castle Stead, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  35. Castlestead Ring, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  36. Catstones Ring, Harden, West Yorkshire
  37. Chapel House Field, Kilnsey, Consistone, North Yorkshire
  38. Chapel House Wood, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  39. Coldstone Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  40. Conichen East, Glen Almond, Perthshire
  41. Corbury Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  42. Corrycharmaig, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  43. Counter Hill, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  44. Cow Close, Skirethorns, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  45. Cow Gill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  46. Cratcliff East, Harthill, Derbyshire
  47. Cratcliff Rocks, Birchover, Derbyshire
  48. Crawshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  49. Crookedstane, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  50. Crosley Wood, Bingley, West Yorkshire
  51. Crow Well, Denton Moor, North Yorkshire
  52. Dewbottoms, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  53. Doddin, Watermeetings, Lanarkshire
  54. Douky Bottom Ring, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  55. Douky Bottom Settlement, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  56. Drake Law, Abington, Lanarkshire
  57. Dumpit Hill Enclosure, Hebden, North Yorkshire
  58. Duncroisk, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  59. Dunruchan, Muthill, Perthshire
  60. Dyke Hills, Dorchester, Oxfordshire
  61. Easington Fell Ring, Newton, Lancashire
  62. Ellershie Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  63. Elvanfoot Settlement, Lanarkshire
  64. Elvanfoot West Settlement, Lanarkshire
  65. Fair Oak Circle, Whitewell, Chipping, Lancashire
  66. Foster Clough Delph, Midgley Moor, West Yorkshire
  67. Garchel Burn, Glendevon, Perthshire
  68. Gastonend Wood, Abington, Lanarkshire
  69. Gill Head, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  70. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  71. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  72. Glen Cochill 2, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  73. Glenochar, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  74. Grass Woods, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  75. Great Skirtful Ring, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  76. Green Crag East, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  77. Green Crag Slack, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  78. Green Plain, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  79. Hammond Close, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  80. Hawksworth Moor Camp, Hawksworth, West Yorkshire
  81. Helwith Bridge, Stainforth, North Yorkshire
  82. Hickford Hill, Belchamp St Paul, Essex
  83. High Close Pasture, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  84. High Hill, Sigsworth Moor, Fountains Earth, North Yorkshire
  85. High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  86. Hollin Tree Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  87. Horncliffe Circle, Hawksworth Moor, West Yorkshire
  88. Horse Close Hill, Skipton, North Yorkshire
  89. Hurl Burn, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  90. Innischoarach, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  91. Ivy Chimneys, Witham, Essex
  92. Kealcup Hill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  93. Kimpergill Hill, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  94. Lael Forest, Braemore, Ross & Cromarty
  95. Langcliffe, Kettlewell, North Yorkshire
  96. Lanshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  97. Lea Green, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  98. Lantern Holes, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  99. Lodge Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  100. Marchup, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  101. Mellon Udrigle, Ross & Cromarty
  102. Middle House Pasture, Waterhouses, Malham, North Yorkshire
  103. Moor Lane, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  104. Mossy Dod, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  105. Newton Bridge, Fowlis Wester, Perthshire
  106. Normangill Rig, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  107. North Ring, Mucking, Stanford-le-Hope, Essex
  108. North Shortcleuch, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  109. Oldfield Hill, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  110. Outgang Hill, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  111. Overlee, Clarkston, Renfrewshire
  112. Panorama Woods, Ilkley, West Yorkshire
  113. Power Station Road, Sheerness, Isle of Sheppey, Kent
  114. Prior Rakes, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  115. Proctor High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  116. Quarry Hill, Leeds, West Yorkshire
  117. Raven’s Peak, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  118. Reed Gill, Camps Water, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  119. Rivock, Riddlesden, Keighley, West Yorkshire
  120. Rough Haw, Flasby, North Yorkshire
  121. Round Dikes, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  122. Royd Edge, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  123. Rushy Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  124. Rybury Hill, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  125. Rams Hill, Kingston Lisle, Oxfordshire
  126. Sand, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  127. Rushy Beck West, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  128. Scot Gate Pasture, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  129. Shay Gate, Wilsden, West Yorkshire
  130. Shealwalls, Alyth, Perthshire (NEW FIND)
  131. Sheep Scar, Giggleswick, North Yorkshire
  132. Sheriff Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  133. Shooting House Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  134. Shorkley Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  135. Skelshaw Ring, Easington, Lancashire
  136. Slade, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  137. Snowden Carr Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  138. Snowden Moor Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  139. South Kirkby, South Yorkshire
  140. Springfield Lyons, Chelmsford, Essex
  141. Stanbury Hill, Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  142. Stanwick Fortifications, Stanwick-St-John, North Yorkshire
  143. Stead Crag, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  144. Stoop Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  145. Stridebut Edge, Malham, North Yorkshire
  146. Studfold Ring, Amplethorpe, North Yorkshire
  147. Sun Bank, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  148. Swinston Hill, Dinnington, South Yorkshire
  149. Talmine (west), Melness, Tongue, Sutherland
  150. Tattersal Pasture, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  151. Tooter Hill, Bacup, Lancashire
  152. Torlery Edge, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  153. Torr Mor, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  154. Townhead, Rothesay, Isle of Bute, Argyll
  155. Tullich, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  156. Werneth Low, Hyde, Lancashire
  157. Wharncliffe Moor, Stocksbridge, South Yorkshire
  158. Whelphill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  159. Woofa Bank, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  160. Yarmer Head, Nidd, North Yorkshire
  161. Yarnbury, Grassington, North Yorkshire

© Paul Bennett, The Northern Antiquarian