Settlements & Enclosures

Archaeological sites which tend to be overlooked by some people are, surprisingly, the places in which our ancestors lived; and then when we do come across such remains they are looked upon as merely ‘domestic’ sites, i.e., that they serve much the same function as our modern houses do. This assumption is both simplistic and naive, as neolithic to Iron Age cultures had very different notions and ingredients about their living quarters. In many settlement remains, the dead were kept with the living; whilst some living quarters were also the abodes of ‘spirit.’ Although we cannot apply this notion across the board, aspects such as these have to be remembered when we try assessing the nature and function of something we see, somewhat profanely, as mere ‘settlements.’  Also remember that people in neolithic through to Iron Age periods were nomadic. There is a notion prevalent in some archaeological circles that when agriculture first arrived in the UK in neolithic times, that it was adopted across the country by all and sundry straight away – which is rather myopic. Much like the North American tribal cultures, small tribal groups here would move from their Spring and Summer settlements to others in the colder seasons, then back again (following the same traditional routes) when Nature’s signs indicated (migration of birds, etc). It’s very unlikely there was a 365-day period where people stayed in the same area. Such a transition took many centuries to become fixed (modern Romany gypsies are the last nomadic cultures of Europe, showing that the notion of ‘settlement’ for everyone is not necessarily the natural order). So prehistoric settlements are important, not merely as sites where communities stayed for periods of time, but also enacted social rituals that were an endemic part of domestic life.

  1. Addlebrough, Bainbridge, North Yorkshire
  2. Allt Leathan, Fortingall, Perthshire
  3. Annanshaw Brae, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  4. Avon Reservoir, Dean Moor, South Brent, Devon
  5. Backstone Beck, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  6. Backstone West, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  7. Bad Chailleach, Little Gruinard, Ross & Cromarty
  8. Baile Mhargaite 1, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  9. Baile Mhargaite 2, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  10. Baile Mhargaite 3, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  11. Baile Mhargaite 4, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  12. Baile Mhargaite 5, Bettyhill, Sutherland
  13. Barrasford Common, Barrasford, Northumberland
  14. Baston Manor, Hayes, Kent
  15. Bastow Wood, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  16. Bengengie North, Alva, Clackmannanshire
  17. Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  18. Black Hill, Crawfordjohn, Lanarkshire
  19. Black Hill Enclosure, Middleton Moor, North Yorkshire
  20. Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  21. Blue Scar, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  22. Bodsbury Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  23. Broadbank Earth Circle, Thursden, Burnley, Lancashire
  24. Brown Law, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  25. Burton Moor, West Burton, North Yorkshire
  26. Campside Wood, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  27. Cannings Cross Farm, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  28. Carle Gill, Leadhills, Lanarkshire
  29. The Carrs, Ovenden, Halifax, West Yorkshire
  30. Castercliff, Nelson, Lancashire
  31. Castle Hill, Kirklees, West Yorkshire
  32. Castle Hill, Upper Cumberworth, West Yorkshire
  33. Castle Stead, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  34. Castlestead Ring, Cullingworth, West Yorkshire
  35. Catstones Ring, Harden, West Yorkshire
  36. Chapel House Field, Kilnsey, Consistone, North Yorkshire
  37. Chapel House Wood, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  38. Coldstone Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  39. Conichen East, Glen Almond, Perthshire
  40. Corbury Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  41. Corrycharmaig, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  42. Counter Hill, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  43. Cow Close, Skirethorns, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  44. Cow Gill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  45. Cratcliff East, Harthill, Derbyshire
  46. Cratcliff Rocks, Birchover, Derbyshire
  47. Crawshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  48. Crookedstane, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  49. Crosley Wood, Bingley, West Yorkshire
  50. Crow Well, Denton Moor, North Yorkshire
  51. Dewbottoms, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  52. Doddin, Watermeetings, Lanarkshire
  53. Douky Bottom Ring, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  54. Douky Bottom Settlement, Arncliffe, North Yorkshire
  55. Drake Law, Abington, Lanarkshire
  56. Dumpit Hill Enclosure, Hebden, North Yorkshire
  57. Duncroisk, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  58. Dunruchan, Muthill, Perthshire
  59. Dyke Hills, Dorchester, Oxfordshire
  60. Easington Fell Ring, Newton, Lancashire
  61. Ellershie Hill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  62. Elvanfoot Settlement, Lanarkshire
  63. Elvanfoot West Settlement, Lanarkshire
  64. Fair Oak Circle, Whitewell, Chipping, Lancashire
  65. Foster Clough Delph, Midgley Moor, West Yorkshire
  66. Garchel Burn, Glendevon, Perthshire
  67. Gastonend Wood, Abington, Lanarkshire
  68. Gill Head, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  69. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  70. Glen Cochill 1, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  71. Glen Cochill 2, Little Dunkeld, Perthshire
  72. Glenochar, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  73. Grass Woods, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  74. Great Skirtful Ring, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  75. Green Crag East, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  76. Green Crag Slack, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  77. Green Plain, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  78. Hammond Close, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  79. Hawksworth Moor Camp, Hawksworth, West Yorkshire
  80. Helwith Bridge, Stainforth, North Yorkshire
  81. Hickford Hill, Belchamp St Paul, Essex
  82. High Close Pasture, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  83. High Hill, Sigsworth Moor, Fountains Earth, North Yorkshire
  84. High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  85. Hollin Tree Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  86. Horncliffe Circle, Hawksworth Moor, West Yorkshire
  87. Horse Close Hill, Skipton, North Yorkshire
  88. Hurl Burn, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  89. Innischoarach, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  90. Ivy Chimneys, Witham, Essex
  91. Kealcup Hill, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  92. Kimpergill Hill, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  93. Lael Forest, Braemore, Ross & Cromarty
  94. Langcliffe, Kettlewell, North Yorkshire
  95. Lanshaw, Ilkley Moor, West Yorkshire
  96. Lea Green, Grassington, North Yorkshire
  97. Lantern Holes, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  98. Lodge Hill, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  99. Marchup, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  100. Mellon Udrigle, Ross & Cromarty
  101. Middle House Pasture, Waterhouses, Malham, North Yorkshire
  102. Moor Lane, Threshfield, North Yorkshire
  103. Mossy Dod, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  104. Normangill Rig, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  105. North Ring, Mucking, Stanford-le-Hope, Essex
  106. North Shortcleuch, Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire
  107. Oldfield Hill, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  108. Outgang Hill, Kilnsey, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  109. Panorama Woods, Ilkley, West Yorkshire
  110. Power Station Road, Sheerness, Isle of Sheppey, Kent
  111. Prior Rakes, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  112. Proctor High Mark, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  113. Quarry Hill, Leeds, West Yorkshire
  114. Raven’s Peak, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  115. Reed Gill, Camps Water, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  116. Rivock, Riddlesden, Keighley, West Yorkshire
  117. Rough Haw, Flasby, North Yorkshire
  118. Round Dikes, Addingham, West Yorkshire
  119. Royd Edge, Meltham, West Yorkshire
  120. Rushy Beck, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  121. Rybury Hill, All Cannings, Wiltshire
  122. Sand, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  123. Rushy Beck West, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  124. Scot Gate Pasture, Conistone, North Yorkshire
  125. Shay Gate, Wilsden, West Yorkshire
  126. Shealwalls, Alyth, Perthshire (NEW FIND)
  127. Sheep Scar, Giggleswick, North Yorkshire
  128. Sheriff Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  129. Shooting House Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  130. Shorkley Hill, Malham, North Yorkshire
  131. Skelshaw Ring, Easington, Lancashire
  132. Slade, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  133. Snowden Carr Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  134. Snowden Moor Settlement, Askwith, North Yorkshire
  135. South Kirkby, South Yorkshire
  136. Springfield Lyons, Chelmsford, Essex
  137. Stanbury Hill, Bingley Moor, West Yorkshire
  138. Stanwick Fortifications, Stanwick-St-John, North Yorkshire
  139. Stead Crag, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  140. Stoop Hill, Askwith Moor, North Yorkshire
  141. Stridebut Edge, Malham, North Yorkshire
  142. Studfold Ring, Amplethorpe, North Yorkshire
  143. Sun Bank, Blubberhouses Moor, North Yorkshire
  144. Swinston Hill, Dinnington, South Yorkshire
  145. Tattersal Pasture, Bordley, North Yorkshire
  146. Tooter Hill, Bacup, Lancashire
  147. Torlery Edge, Malham Moor, North Yorkshire
  148. Torr Mor, Applecross, Ross & Cromarty
  149. Townhead, Rothesay, Isle of Bute, Argyll
  150. Tullich, Glen Lochay, Killin, Perthshire
  151. Werneth Low, Hyde, Lancashire
  152. Wharncliffe Moor, Stocksbridge, South Yorkshire
  153. Whelphill, Crawford, Lanarkshire
  154. Woofa Bank, Burley Moor, West Yorkshire
  155. Yarnbury, Grassington, North Yorkshire

© Paul Bennett, The Northern Antiquarian